Remove entries from array to sort it and maximize sum of elements

Haskell, \$O(n \log n)\$ time, \$O(n)\$ space

{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}

import qualified Data.FingerTree as F

data S = S
  { sSum :: Int
  , sArr :: [Int]
  } deriving (Show)

instance Monoid S where
  mempty = S 0 []
  mappend _ s = s

instance F.Measured S S where
  measure = id

bestSubarrays :: [Int] -> F.FingerTree S S
bestSubarrays [] = F.empty
bestSubarrays (x:xs) = left F.>< sNew F.<| right'
    (left, right) = F.split (\s -> sArr s > [x]) (bestSubarrays xs)
    sLeft = F.measure left
    sNew = S (x + sSum sLeft) (x : sArr sLeft)
    right' = F.dropUntil (\s -> sSum s > sSum sNew) right

bestSubarray :: [Int] -> [Int]
bestSubarray = sArr . F.measure . bestSubarrays

How it works

bestSubarrays xs is the sequence of subarrays of xs that are on the efficient frontier of {largest sum, smallest first element}, ordered from left to right by increasing sum and increasing first element.

To go from bestSubarrays xs to bestSubarrays (x:xs), we

  1. split the sequence into a left side with first elements less than x, and a right side with first elements greater than x,
  2. find a new subarray by prepending x to the rightmost subarray on the left side,
  3. drop the prefix of subarrays from the right side with smaller sum than the new subarray,
  4. concatenate the left side, the new subarray, and the remainder of the right side.

A finger tree supports all these operations in \$O(\log n)\$ time.


This should be O(n^2) in time and O(n) in space

Give numbers separated by space on one line to STDIN

#!/usr/bin/perl -a
use strict;
use warnings;

# use Data::Dumper;
use constant {
    INFINITY => 9**9**9,
    DEBUG    => 0,

# Recover sequence from the 'how' linked list
sub how {
    my @z;
    for (my $h = shift->{how}; $h; $h = $h->[1]) {
        push @z, $h->[0];
    pop @z;
    return join " ", reverse @z;

use constant MINIMUM => {
    how  => [-INFINITY, [INFINITY]],
    sum  => -INFINITY,
    next => undef,

# Candidates is a linked list of subsequences under consideration
# A given final element will only appear once in the list of candidates
# in combination with the best sum that can be achieved with that final element
# The list of candidates is reverse sorted by final element
my $candidates = {
    # 'how' will represent the sequence that adds up to the given sum as a
    # reversed lisp style list.
    # so e.g. "1, 5, 8" will be represented as [8, [5, [1, INFINITY]]]
    # So the final element will be at the front of 'how'
    how  => [INFINITY],
    # The highest sum that can be reached with any subsequence with the same
    # final element
    sum  => 0,
    # 'next' points to the next candidate
    next => MINIMUM,   # Dummy terminator to simplify program logic

for my $num (@F) {
    # Among the candidates on which an extension with $num is valid
    # find the highest sum
    my $max_sum = MINIMUM;
    my $c = \$candidates;
    while ($num < $$c->{how}[0]) {
        if ($$c->{sum} > $max_sum->{sum}) {
            $max_sum = $$c;
            $c = \$$c->{next};
        } else {
            # Remove pointless candidate
            $$c = $$c->{next};

    my $new_sum = $max_sum->{sum} + $num;
    if ($$c->{how}[0] != $num) {
        # Insert a new candidate with a never before seen end element
        # Due to the unique element rule this branch will always be taken
        $$c = { next => $$c };
    } elsif ($new_sum <= $$c->{sum}) {
        # An already known end element but the sum is no improvement
    $$c->{sum} = $new_sum;
    $$c->{how} = [$num, $max_sum->{how}];
    # print(Dumper($candidates));
    if (DEBUG) {
        print "Adding $num\n";
        for (my $c = $candidates; $c; $c = $c->{next}) {
            printf "sum(%s) = %s\n", how($c), $c->{sum};
        print "------\n";

# Find the sequence with the highest sum among the candidates
my $max_sum = MINIMUM;
for (my $c = $candidates; $c; $c = $c->{next}) {
    $max_sum = $c if $c->{sum} > $max_sum->{sum};

# And finally print the result
print how($max_sum), "\n";