No Option for "SFDX:Authorize an Org" command in VS Code Command Palette

Oh, I know the answer. You have to create a project first. Then and only then the other commands will become available for you

Well, yeah. That's the answer. But just to make it cleaner for you. All the commands, that exists in the palette works with scratch orgs, which can't be used outside a project, because of project-scratch-org.json file, that defines the shape of your scratches

I was having this same issue after I created a project and tried to open vscode and log in. The solution I found was going to file -> open folder -> choose the project folder created originally. The options to login option will be available in the command palette.

It was confusing since in the explorer panel the file directory was showing the project files.